Investigations for fertility check the 4 components needed to make a baby -Sperm, Fallopian tubes, Uterine lining and Ovulation.
Semen assessment tells us that the sperm look normal and are motile and in good numbers require to successfully fertilize the egg.
Since the eggs and the sperm meet in the fallopian tube it is important to check for tubal patency, the easiest and most effective way to do it is echo-sonography.
Though eggs are made in ovaries, the process is controlled by the pituitary gland in the brain. We do blood tests to check hormones released from the pituitary glands. When done at the appropriate time in the menstrual cycle, they tell us how well the ovaries are working.
Monitoring the growth of the ovarian follicles and its subsequent rupture tells us that ovulation happens regularly.
Lastly the endometrium is where the embryo lodges itself and grows to make a baby. Checking the thickness of the endometrium by ultra sound scans and if necessary its appearance on hysteroscopy is how we evaluate the endometrium. The use of 3D ultrasound scans and saline–contrast sonography has made the diagnosis of polyps or fibroids far easier and greatly reduced the need for invasive and expensive procedures like hysteroscopy or laparoscopy.